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Among the many compelling and challenging essays in Anne-Marie Willis’ Design Philosophy Reader is Mahmoud Keshavarz’s exploration of the idea of humanitarianism, and how designers’ best intentions can be compromised.   “As humanitarian design also often comes from a Western-oriented understanding of

...Actually it’s two words,“Ichigo Ichie”   We asked Yoko Akama, Associate Professor, Communication Design, RMIT University, Melbourne to reflect on a question inspired by the theme of Æffect issue 2 – “What borders do you cross in your practice or business in